Table of Contents

Imperfect Pasture:  A Century of Change at the National Elk Refuge in Jackson Hole, Wyoming

Grand Teton Natural History Association
ISBN-0-931895-58-8
Soft Cover: September 2004
156 pages

 

FOREWORD

INTRODUCTION

THE STUDY AREA

   The Present Biotic Community

   Historical Backdrop

   Early Abundance of Ungulates

   Early History of the Jackson Elk

   Recent Wildlife Populations

THE PROCESS OF DOCUMENTATION

   Repeat Photography

   Time-sequenced Aerial Photography

   Mapping of Extant Willow
       Distribution

   Experimental Evaluation of Change

THE PLATES

POTENTIAL CAUSES OF VEGETATION CHANGE

   Homesteading Era

   Refuge Establishment

   Land Use under Refuge Management

   Climate

   Hydrology and Irrigation

   Fire History and Effects

   Invasive and Competitive Species

   Predator Control

   Loss of Beaver

   Exclosures

   Effects of Elk and Other Wild 
      Ungulates on Woody Plants

ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

SUMMARY

LITERATURE CITED

APPENDICES